In: Jahrbuch für Historische Kommunismusforschung 2009. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, S. 299–314
The analysis of Italian Fascism which theorists of the Comintern undertook in 1921–1928 was one of the most interesting interpretations of this phenomenon presented at that time. This, in contrast, cannot be said about the analysis of National Socialism within which no comparable results were reached. Even Trotsky who, in the 1930s, analyzed National Socialism independently from the Stalin-dominated Comintern overlooked many specific characteristics which distinguished National Socialism from Italian Fascism. The erroneous assessment of National Socialism can, thus, not be traced to Stalin’s enforced conformity in the discussion on fascism in the Comintern alone. Obviously, there were also other reasons that eased the Bolsheviks’ understanding of Italian Fascism and hindered their comprehension of the peculiarities of National Socialism. The article is devoted to the analysis of these reasons.