In: Jahrbuch für Historische Kommunismusforschung 2009. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, S. 121–147
The article focuses on relations between international Communism and the Islamic umma, or global community, rather than Moscow’s policies toward Soviet Muslims. While the latter has received the attention of historians and other experts, the former has been neglected as a subject of study. The paper includes material on Karl Marx’s attitude to the Ottoman Empire, the impact of events in Russia in 1905 on Persia and Turkey, and theoretical conclusions drawn from that experience by Lenin and Trotsky. The roles of previously-neglected figures such as the Moroccan Berber fighter Abd el-Krim and the Algerian nationalist Messali Hadj are evaluated. Finally, material on Muslims who fought on the side of the republic in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39 is included.