There were two prisons in Bautzen -- Bautzen I and Bautzen II. From 1933 until 1945, the Nazis used both also for political prisoners. In 1945, after the Red Army had occupied Saxony, the Soviets' secret police NKVD
(a predecessor of the KGB) set up Special Internment Camp No. 4
(later No. 3) in Bautzen I, which was in operation until 1950.

Of more than 27.000 prisoners, who passed through the camp, about 3,000 died because of the camp's inhumane living conditions. They were burried in mass graves on a nearby hill named "Karnickelberg" ("rabbit hill"). Bautzen II served the NKVD as a pre-trial detention facility for prisoners to be convicted by Soviet Military Tribunals. Prisoners included former Nazi activists, persons who had been arbitrariliy arrested, and opponents of the Soviet occupational forces. Today, Bautzen I serves as a regular prison. On account of its being built with yellow bricks, it was nicknamed "Yellow Misery." By contrast, the Stasi used Bautzen II as its special prison from 1956 until 1989.

In 1992, Bautzen II was turned into a memorial site to commemorate the history of both prisons during national socialism, Soviet occupation, and in the GDR. The Bautzen Memorial opened to the public in 1994. Among other things, an exhibit on the special internment camp may be viewed there today. The memorial for the victims of the speacial internment camp is on the "Karnickelberg" near the "Yellow Misery."



Rabbit Hill - Graveyard

Contact Information

Bautzen Memorial

Weigangstrasse 8a
02625 Bautzen
phone: +49-(0)3591-40474