Oranienburg

Memorial and Museum "Soviet Special Internment Camp No. 7/No. 1" Sachsenhausen

From 1936 to 1945, Sachsenhausen was a Nazi concentration camp. About 200,000 people from almost 40 different nations were imprisoned here, of whom tens of thousands died of hunger, illness, abuse, forced labor or were systematically killed. In the fall of 1941, at least 12,000 Soviet prisoners of war (POWs)--many of them Jews--were executed. In 1942, a unit where prisoners were executed by shooting through the nape of the neck was introduced by demonstrating the technology and thus killing 250 Jewish prisoners. After the end of World War II, Sachsenhausen served as Soviet Special Internment Camp No. 7/No. 1 until 1950. It was the largest of the 10 camps run by the Soviet secret police NKVD (later KGB). In early May 1945, the NKVD had established the Special Internment Camp No. 7 near Werneuchen, where on five farms 15,000 inmates were herded together. In early August 1945, the NKVD started to move the prisoners to Sachsenhausen. Since September 1946, persons were sent there who had been convicted by Soviet Military Tribunals. All in all, ca. 60,000 people were imprisoned in Sachsenhausen under the Soviets; 12,000 of them died. By 1948, a slight improvement of living conditions may be observed, and the first prisoners were released. Until its dissolution in 1950, the camp now figured under the name Special Internment Camp No. 1. Already in 1961, a memorial opened to the public, which, however, focused exclusively on the Nazi concentration camp. When in early 1990 a grave site was discovered at Fünfeichen (Special Internment Camp No. 6 in Neubrandenburg), employees of the Sachsenhausen Memorial together with contemporary witnesses and survivors also started a search and discovered the first of three mass graves connected to the Soviet Special Internment Camp No. 7/No. 1. Since 1993, the Sachsenhausen Memorial and Museum have undergone a thorough transformation, now focusing on both the Nazi concentration camp and the Soviet special internment camp. The Museum remembereing the Soviet Special Camp No. 7/ No. 1 opened in December 2001.

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Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen -
Brandenburg Memorials Foundation


Strasse der Nationen 22
16515 Oranienburg
phone: +49-(0)3301-200-0

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