In: Jahrbuch für Historische Kommunismusforschung 2010. Berlin: Aufbau Verlag, pp. 1–14.
The breakdown of the SED regime resulted from a number of developments which culminated in the fall of 1989. During the 1970s and 1980s, the GDR was increasingly dependent on economic support by West Germany. This was the first factor to loosen the ties to the USSR on which its very existence was based. When Gorbachev set out to change the political system, Honecker rejected his effort and thus widened the gap. Open conflict with the Soviet Union made leading circles within the SED feel that Honecker must be ousted. Gorbachev, however, stuck to the principle of strict non-intervention, and the adversaries of the SED boss, who were used to receive guidance from Moscow, failed to act on their own. As a result, the regime as a whole was losing authority, and dissident activity was increasing. The GDR ran into full disaster when Gorbachev decided that he was more interested in the Federal Republic than in his East German client state, revoked protection under the Brezhnev Doctrine and allowed policy to be guided by economic rather than political interests. When, in addition to all this, his intraparty opponents were determined to remove Honecker, Soviet troops clearly left the East German security forces alone in their confrontation with mass protest in the streets, and it became clear that West Germany was the only candidate to save the GDR from bankruptcy, the SED regime was no longer willing to defend itself.