In: Jahrbuch für Historische Kommunismusforschung 2013. Berlin: Aufbau Verlag, pp. 57-89.
As early as before Czechoslovakia's surrender to Hitler after having been abandoned by Britain and France, Beneš saw the USSR as a major protector of his country. When, during World War II, restoration of national integrity and independence was his objective, he felt that the USSR was the very power to rely on. In his view, the numerous ethnic Germans in Bohemia and Moravia were aliens who must not accepted any longer as co-nationals and therefore made to leave the country. Having elicited Stalin's support, he provided for Czechoslovakia to be liberated by the Red Army rather than by Western troops, committed himself to unconditional compliance with Soviet policy, and made the communists take a dominant position in Prague. His underlying assumption that both the USSR and its foreign followers would respect democracy, proved wrong. As a result, the communists subverted the state apparatus and, with active support by the Kremlin, took full power to sovietize the country.